Lack of small business participation (small fishing companies SIC Code 13100) in the Transport Education Training Authority-Supported Schemes

Lack of small business participation (small fishing companies SIC Code 13100) in the Transport Education Training Authority-Supported Schemes

Authors Malcolm Alexander

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: ETD Practitioner (Maritime), Transport Education Training Authority
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 2 Issue 1, p. 1-24
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2023/i1a1

Abstract

The study focusses on the transport sector, where company participation level is measured at approximately 20% of levy paying enterprises, and this level is mostly based on relatively high levels of participation from large and medium-sized companies. The study explores the relationship between Sector Education and Training Authorities (SETAs) and the companies within the sectors they are mandated to serve by researching the Transport Education Training Authority (TETA) maritime subsector. The research focus is on small companies and the focus is specifically on the low rate of participation of smaller entities in the skills development landscape. The consequences of the lack of participation are investigated and the study concludes that the SETA’s ability to effectively research its sector skills, as well as the SETAs ability to provide effective skills planning in support of the national agenda, are both negatively affected by current levels of poor participation. The research was conducted on small fishing companies registered with TETA, in order to determine the reasons for low participation in the government’s mandatory grant scheme. The research is survey-based across participating and non-participating small companies. In addition, it is proposed that the elements contained herein are transferable to other subsectors of the transport economy (e.g. air, road and rail), and to the multitude of other SETAs that have small companies registered with them. Succinctly, there is no financial incentive to a small company to participate, the SETAs should consider incentives schemes to increase participation that is project-based and allows for subsidised training. The value of an improved Sector Skills Plan (SSP) that matches the skills needs of the sector increases the likelihood of projects having a meaningful impact on the sector and reduces fruitless and wasteful expenditure in the sector. The small business environment has huge potential to assist in skills development, a skilled workforce, improved productivity and reducing unemployment. The findings and solutions are important tools for taking the maritime development agenda forward.

Modern shipping needs to be cybersecure: A South African perspective

Modern shipping needs to be cybersecure: A South African perspective

Authors Rossouw von Solms and Suné von Solms

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: Emeritus Professor, Centre for Research in Information and Cyber Security (CRICS), School of Information Technology, Nelson Mandela University; South African International Maritime Institute; Head of Department, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg; South African international Maritime Institute; Head of Department, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg; South African international Maritime Institute
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 2 Issue 1, p. 25-34
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2023/i1a2

Abstract

The traditional standalone operational technology systems that control multiple mechanical systems on board a ship get increasingly integrated with modern information and communications technology (ICT)-related systems. These ICT systems that continuously become interconnected with operational technologies and systems include the Internet-of-Things (IoT), autonomous technologies and the internet with adequate bandwidth etc. The IoT typically employs numerous sensors and captures vast amounts of data, which is processed, transmitted and turned into trusted intelligence to the advantage of all parties involved. Furthermore, modern navigational systems utilise global positioning systems (GPS), radar, sonar and computerised maps. These are used in conjunction with modern communication systems to communicate related data used for accurate navigation. In addition, autonomous technologies are highly dependent on accurate data communicated to them. Thus, it is clear that data is rightly termed ‘the new gold’ in the shipping industry. On the other hand, the maritime industry, like most other industries, is highly vulnerable to cybersecurity attack. As more data is captured, processed and communicated for the more critical shipping activities, the more vulnerable the industry will become to modern cybersecurity threats. Therefore, the interfaces between sensors, devices and different technologies, and the communication of captured data need to be properly secured. Furthermore, many of the shipping industry staff working with technologies where data are captured and communicated need to be educated on how to assist in securing this data. This paper will emphasise the continued use of ICTrelated systems in the shipping industry, and how this digitalisation and smart use of ICT solutions will benefit the maritime industry. In light of this, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the continued vulnerabilities to modern cybersecurity threats, and to discuss some solutions to securing these technologies towards securing the industry as a whole. The paper will also address aspects of educating maritime staff in technology-related areas ranging from the ICT- and cybersecurity-related topics that need to be included in maritime curricula, on the more formal side, to making all staff members more cybersecurity aware, on the more informal side.

Maritime skills development in KwaZulu-Natal: 2022

Maritime skills development in KwaZulu-Natal: 2022

Authors Leticia A Grimett and Sihle Mzileni

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: Honorary Research Fellow at the University of KwaZulu-Natal School of Law, South African International Maritime Institute
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 2 Issue 1, p. 35-56
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2023/i1a3

Abstract

The Operation Phakisa: Oceans Economy mandate, in line with the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals, calls for the extension of the benefits of maritime sector development to disadvantaged rural communities. This mandate can only be realised if the rural communities can actively partake in the sector. Research has shown that the coastal rural communities were unaware of the maritime sector, and few were prepared to partake in the maritime value chain. This maritime skills audit sought to determine the skills required by the maritime sector and the ability of the rural community to provide them. The research also sought to determine the geographical and educational gaps within the sector. Initially, the intention of the research was, to discover specific areas where skills shortages and education gaps were found. While the Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act proved to be a limiting factor, the study still uncovered the structural issues affecting the education and training of rural learners. The maritime sector is primarily urban. Maritime training is also done within the urban sectors. While it should be a simple matter of the rural learners moving to urban centres to study, the deficiencies in the education of the rural populations have created a major systemic bottleneck. This paper provides the results of the maritime business audit, together with the issues facing the rural education sector and the obstacles they present.

Smart Ports: Is SADC positioned for Transition?

Smart Ports: Is SADC positioned for Transition?

Author Leticia A Grimett

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: Honorary Research Fellow at the University of KwaZulu-Natal School of Law, South African International Maritime Institute
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 2 Issue 1, p. 57-70
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2023/i1a4

Abstract

Whereas international trade was previously the preserve of organised business, the digital revolution and the increased popularity of online purchases on the internet has meant that international trade is now easily accessible at an individual level. At both a domestic and international level, the Covid-19 crisis amplified the pressure placed on businesses and consumers to adopt digital technologies, and this has been catalytic in moving the public towards greater reliance on online transactions and a movement away from traditional purchasing practices. Increased global trade at an individual level has put greater pressure on global supply chains, with every link in the supply chain being called upon to perform more effectively and efficiently. Ports, as gates of entry into domestic markets and transshipment routes, have been under increased pressure to conform to the needs of the international trading community. Greater trading volumes have put ports at risk of higher levels of crime by international and domestic criminal syndicates. The changing environmental landscape has meant that ships are being transformed for compliance purposes. Increased concern about water quality and impacts on sensitive habitats has put additional pressure on port authorities. These pressures have led to the creation of smart ports, which are fully automated, taking advantage of the latest technologies, blockchain and artificial intelligence (AI), and state of the art monitoring software and processes, while adhering to and promoting compliance with both the latest environmental protocols and the United Nations (UN) 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this contribution to the conference, the discussion centres on the challenges facing ports in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region, in the light of the latest global developments. Smart ports and the drivers towards greater changes are discussed and analysed. Finally, the state of ports in the SADC region are evaluated in the light of the latest global developments in order to determine whether our ports are prepared to transition and changes that can be made to facilitate the process.

Learning opportunities for further career development and enhancement of seagoing professionals: A South African perspective

Learning opportunities for further career development and enhancement of seagoing professionals: A South African perspective

Authors Malek Pourzanjani, Hashali Hamukuaya and Tanaka Mugabe

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: Head of Naval Education, Marine Learning Alliance (MLA) College; South African International Maritime Institute; Honorary Research Fellow at the University of KwaZulu-Natal School of Law, South African International Maritime Institute; Researcher, South African International Maritime Institute; Nelson Mandela University
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 2 Issue 1, p. 71-82
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2023/i1a5

Abstract

Maritime education and training (MET) institutions have experienced major changes in their structure, and provision of services over the past four decades. These changes have come about partly due to national and international requirements concerning the seafarers’ standards of competence and partly due to financial regimes under which these institutions are funded, forcing them to diversify into other areas and activities, such as consultancy, research, shore-based training programmes and mergers with larger Institutions. Today’s seafarer is also markedly different to those who went to sea some 30 years ago. The differences in seafarers’ attitude and approach to a seafaring career manifest in a desire to spend less time at sea and treat this as a steppingstone in their working life career. This is true for developed nations, and is more and more becoming the norm, even for the developing countries. With above in mind, one can argue that MET institutions have an excellent opportunity to provide a range of programmes and bitesize courses that can be undertaken by seafarers to prepare them for the next stage of their career. Distance learning and web-based programmes are now commonplace in many institutions, including MET institutions, especially after the recent pandemic and long periods of lockdown. This paper will discuss some of the issues involved in web-based and distance learning, and use a leading global provider of distance learning education to highlight some of the possible opportunities for South Africa as a case study.

The rise of digitalisation and automation in the shipping industry and their impacts on training and system safety

The rise of digitalisation and automation in the shipping industry and their impacts on training and system safety

Authors Scott N MacKinnon, Reto Weber and Monica Lundh

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: Professor in Human Factors, Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Human Factors Research Group, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Simulator Manager/Lecturer, Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Human Factors Research Group, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Professor in Human Factors, Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Human Factors Research Group, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 2 Issue 1, p. 83-96
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2023/i1a6

Abstract

The ubiquitous application of digitalisation and automation within the maritime shipping industry will create disruptions that will have profound effects on how work is performed in the industry. The practice of safe navigation will require an evolution and subsequent evolvement of how operators and technologies interact in a complex sociotechnical system if a better understanding of system safety is to be achieved. Predictions of how actors and agents in the same workspace will emerge. This paper focuses on the current levels of automation prevalent in the navigation sector, a futuristic prediction and foresight of challenges related to the emergence of technologies, automation and artificial intelligence, and the competencies required related to the training of future seafarers.