Maritime education and training – responding to the changing role of the seafarer

Maritime education and training – responding to the changing role of the seafarer

Author Tebogo A Mojafi

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: South African Maritime Safety Authority
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 2 Issue 1, p. 97-120
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2023/i1a7

Abstract

Maritime transport carries more than two-thirds of the world’s total cargo and plays an important role in the sustainable development of the global economy. As a derivate of trade, the shipping industry allows citizens of the world to trade and people to gain meaningful employment. According to the 2021 BIMCO ICS Seafarer Workforce Report, there are about 74 000 vessels in the world merchant fleet, employing a total of 1.9 million seafarers (UNCTAD, 2021; Tang and Zhang, 2021). Abidin and Ismail sum the relationship between seafarer and ships by indicating that seafarers play a critical role in facilitating trade, whereas shipping is a critical element in the promotion of international cooperation. Like other industries, shipping is also impacted by changing developments around the world. The dawn of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) brings about challenges concerning how the industry ensures that tomorrow’s seafarers have the necessary skills to ensure efficiency of the maritime industry. With the changing technologies, Emad, Enshaei and Ghosh caution against simply focusing on the development of technology and forgetting about getting the seafarers ready for the future maritime landscape. Over time, the role of the seafarer has changed, requiring the shipping industry to devise strategies aimed at developing seafarer skills and competencies. Acomi and Acomi found that maritime and offshore oil and gas graduates lacked some of the expected competencies including soft skills and industry experience. Whereas, the BIMCO Workforce Report6 estimates seafarer shortages, there are still many seafarers who are still battling to find employment. How should the country manage its seafarer development programme to ensure South African seafarer relevance into the future? This paper explores how the maritime industry should respond to the changing role of the seafarer. It establishes the challenges faced by South African seafarers regarding placement and explores the role of education and training in addressing the competitiveness of the seafarers.

Challenges in International Convention on the Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping Compliance: A case study of the South African Maritime Education and Training System

Challenges in International Convention on the Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping Compliance: A case study of the South African Maritime Education and Training System

Author Yamkela Nhleko

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: ESD Coordinator, EThekwini Maritime Cluster
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 2 Issue 1, p. 121-131
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2023/i1a8

Abstract

 Maritime education and training (MET) has been instrumental in the development of seafarers in South Africa and internationally. As a result, different MET systems are used to not only produce eligible maritime professionals but to ensure that they comply with the requirements of the International Convention on the Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) 1978, as amended in Manila. Some of the challenges in MET prove not to be exclusive but common to some maritime countries. As such, this study aims to explore South Africa’s unique approach to MET rather than the conventional approach of having higher education institutions dedicated specifically to maritime education and maritime training. This has created the need to analyse how the current MET system delivers training in compliance with the minimum standards of the convention. This paper therefore analyses how the STCW Convention and Code is embedded in the MET system in South Africa, and identifies the existing challenges in meeting the requirements of the convention, as well as identifying opportunities for improvement. The identification of challenges and opportunities is investigated by means of desktop research, reviewing existing literature, a document analyses on the academic and technical (vocational) framework, and a review of existing practice and benchmarking this against international practice standards (STCW). This paper proposes a framework that could contribute to the improvement of the current MET system in line with the requirements of the STCW 1978 as amended.

Overview of the Skills Required for Marine Protection and Ocean Governance

Overview of the Skills Required for Marine Protection and Ocean Governance

Author Patrick Vrancken

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: Incumbent of the SARChI Chair in the Law of the Sea and Development in Africa and chair of the Phakisa MPG Lab’s capacity-building working group
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 1 Issue 1, p. 1-8
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2022/i1a1

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the skills required for marine protection  and ocean governance by focusing on five aspects on a regional basis, namely  maritime knowledge, maritime awareness, maritime safety, maritime security and  maritime integrity. It is concluded that a focus on the development and retention of  the skills required in these regards is necessary for the state to optimally govern the  South African maritime domain in the interests of all South Africans, to ensure  that South Africa protects its lawful interests on the high seas and to enable  South Africa to make its full contribution to the integrated governance of the African maritime domain. 

Human Sciences Research Council’s Labour Market Intelligence Partnership Study and Lessons for the Maritime Sector – A Labour Market Theoretical Perspective

Human Sciences Research Council’s Labour Market Intelligence Partnership Study and Lessons for the Maritime Sector – A Labour Market Theoretical Perspective

Author Mokong S Mapadimeng

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: Extraordinary Associate Professor, Northwest University
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 1 Issue 1, p. 9-20
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2022/i1a2

Abstract

To best understand the changing nature of labour markets and how they function,  it is necessary to base our analysis on both the empirical evidence and appropriate  theoretical frameworks. This is particularly so as theory is about real-life situations  and enhances our understanding of how the world around us works and changes.  Theory also guides inquiry into social questions for a better understanding of  how they can be resolved. With this in mind, this paper examines the findings  of the Human Sciences Research Council’s (HSRC) Labour Market Intelligence  Partnership (LMIP) studies, and specifically the 2016 report on Skills Supply and  Demand in South Africa. This it does through the deployment of the contemporary  labour market theories. In doing so, lessons for the maritime sector, which is  presently seeking to implement its skills planning and employment creation plans,  are discussed. The paper finds that while the LMIP lays foundation for future  skills planning, its analysis is, however, not explicitly and adequately anchored into  contemporary labour market theories. This is a major shortcoming as these theories  alert us to issues that LMIP is not adequately giving attention to, i.e., the socially  structured and segmented nature of the labour markets under the competitive  pressures of globalisation and technological changes. 

A Proposed Education-Industry Partnership for Skills Development in the Marine Manufacturing Sector

A Proposed Education-Industry Partnership for Skills Development in the Marine Manufacturing Sector

Author Vanessa Davidson

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: Former Executive Manager, South African Boat Builders Export Council (SABBEX)
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 1 Issue 1, p. 21-28
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2022/i1a3

Abstract

The marine manufacturing sector is a diverse and multi-faceted industry with  a wide range of different skills sets that often overlap with other sectors. A few  specialist qualifications have been developed but a disjuncture exists between  industry and education who have difficulty in finding a common language to  talk about skills partnerships.  Four studies between 2016 and 2018 focused on marine manufacturing and skills  provision are reviewed and their key findings elucidated. The paper forefronts  different conceptual frameworks underpinning skills planning, it questions who is  responsible for the development of qualifications and curricula and lastly raises the  divergent views of industry and education with respect to skills responsiveness and  changing production contexts and innovations.  The paper concludes there is a need to narrow the gap between training provision  and industrial work contexts. It is proposed that this could be achieved through  strong leadership and well-resourced training provision that is responsive and  flexible. The need for a mutual understanding needs to underpin any interventions  such as group training models and relevant partnerships between industry  associations and training providers. 

Applying Systems Thinking Approach to Enterprise Development

Applying Systems Thinking Approach to Enterprise Development

Authors Vincent Bukelani Zulu and Malibongwe Ndlozi

ISSN: 2790-783X
Affiliations: Maritime Manager at Moses Kotane Institute; Maritime Researcher at Moses Kotane Institute
Source: South African Journal of Maritime Education and Training, Volume 1 Issue 1, p. 29-40
https://doi.org/10.47348/SAJMET/2022/i1a4

Abstract

In an increasingly complex, turbulent and rapidly changing environment, enterprise  development actors have their hands full in designing and delivering effective  enterprise development programmes. While enterprise development is a complex  system, it also interacts with the education system and labour market systems,  among other systems, thereby increasing the number of actors/agents within these  systems, their interrelationships and their connectedness. To address this increased  complexity, this paper argues for a systems thinking approach to enterprise  development. The authors will discuss systems thinking concepts, the structure of  enterprise development and their related systems. Three causal loop diagrams and  systems thinking archetypes are used to discuss enterprise development.