Balancing Aviation Demand with a Sustainable Environment: An Analysis of the Global Environmental-Health Impact of Aviation Emissions and the Applicable Regulatory International Law

Authors Murtala Ganiyu A Murgan and Abdul Ghafur Hamid

ISSN: 2521-2613
Affiliations: BA (Hons) MPA(ABU), LLB (Hons) BL LLM(Unilor), PhD(Malaysia).Lecturer, Department of Jurisprudence and International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. (Corresponding author); Professor of International Law, Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Law, International Islamic University, Malaysia.
Source: Africa Nazarene University Law Journal, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 2, p. 70 – 112


An increase in the volume of air transportation worldwide is responsible for the increase in the global discharge of aviation emissions into the environment. The impact of aircraft emissions on human health and the global environment includes: circulation of low quality air; respiratory diseases; high mortality rates; pollution of the atmosphere and stratosphere; global warming and climate change. To mitigate the above problem, the United Nations embarked on efforts to bring about the global reduction in aviation emissions through the instrumentality of law. This article analyses the impact of aviation emissions on human health and the global environment. It also analyses the international laws for regulating aviation emissions with a view to ensuring that the increase in the level of aviation emissions is effectively regulated and does not hamper the growth of aviation transportation. It is found that the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC, as well as the ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) Annex 16 Vol II, Chicago Convention 1944 need to be improved upon in order to manage the impact of aviation emissions. The effective implementation of the ICAO SARPs is recommended as a way to ensure a sufficient reduction in aviation emissions and protection of a sustainable environment.